Romans 7:14-20 Who is the “Man” of Romans 7?


This is a section of the letter in which Paul is speaking of himself, describing a fierce internal struggle with sin. And the question is: Of what stage in his life is he speaking? Is he speaking of the present, that is, of the time of his writing the letter – when he was a mature Christian, indeed an apostle? Or is he speaking of himself as he was in the past, before his conversion? Or is the true answer somewhere in between? Who is the “man” of Romans 7? This has divided Bible students from the earliest days of the church and continues to divide them today. Paul is discussing the Christian life in which he seems to be answering two related questions: How can I live a triumphant Christian life? How can I achieve victory over sin? Any true Christian wants the answer to those questions. In this study we will present four main interpretations of these verses and evaluate each one.

The “Man” of Romans 7 is Unsaved: The first view is that the “man” of Romans 7 is Paul when he was not yet a Christian. According to this view, Paul could not say the things he says here if he were truly a Christian. What things? Well, that he is “a slave to sin,” (v. 14). Paul also says, “Nothing good lives in me” (v. 18). A bit further on Paul cries, “What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death?” (v. 24). In spite of the appeal of this interpretation the view has several major flaws. Let me suggest a few. (1) What Paul says of himself in Romans 7:14-24 is not what Paul says of his pre-Christian state in other passages. Paul is distressed over his inability to fulfill the law’s demands. He is wretched as a result of his failure. He is calling out for deliverance by someone outside himself, What unbeliever ever thinks like that? (2) Paul’s delight in God’s law, expressed in this passage, cannot be found in unbelievers. The “man” of Romans 7 is one who has moved beyond the hostility to God’s law exercised by the unregenerate person. (3) The present tense is used throughout the second half of Romans 7, and this is an apparently meaningful contrast with the past tense employed earlier. In these verses, it’s hard to deny that this speaking of Paul’s present, and therefore a truly Christian experience.

The “Man” of Romans 7 is a “Carnal Christian”: The second view is a very popular one today. It is best known by the phrase “the carnal Christian.”It holds that Paul is indeed speaking of himself as a Christian but that he is speaking of himself (or of himself theoretically) as being in an immature or unsurrendered state. The chief weakness of this view is the doctrine of “the carnal Christian” itself. This view postulates a two-stage Christian experience in which, in stage one, a person accepts Jesus as Savior only, without accepting Him as Lord of his or her life, and then later, in stage two, goes on to receive Him as Lord. This is just not biblical. Above all, it’s not what Paul is saying or has been saying in Romans. Paul is describing the struggle between himself as a new creature in Christ, the new man, and the old man, sinful, un-Christian nature that nevertheless retains in some measure. The struggle is part of what it means to be a Christian in an as-yet unperfected state. It does not mean that there is a first or early stage in the Christian life that may be described as “carnal.”

The “Man” of Romans 7 is under Conviction: A third view takes everything that has been said thus far with full seriousness, drawing the apparently paradoxical conclusion that what Paul says here can be said of neither the unregenerate nor the regenerate man. But where does that leave us? If Paul is not speaking of a regenerate or an unregenerate person, of whom is he speaking? Some have said that Paul is speaking of one who has been awakened to his personal lawlessness and spiritual inability by the Holy Spirit but who has not yet been made a participator in the new life of Jesus Christ. The work has been started, but it has not yet come to fruition. This sounds reasonable, but it still has problems. (1) It does not account for the change from the past tense of the verbs in verses 1-13 to the present tense, beginning with verse 14. (2) It is not true that the “man” of Romans 7 does not yet know who can deliver him. Paul is writing of a struggle we all feel at times, wanting to do what is right while being unable in himself to do it. But as soon as he cries out, “What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?” he has the answer: “Thanks be to God – through Jesus Christ our Lord!” (vv. 24-25).

The “Man” of Romans 7 is a Mature Christian: The final view which is that of most reformed commentators is that Paul is writing of himself as a mature Christian, describing the Christian’s continuing conflict with sin, which we all experience, and teaching that there is no victory in such struggles apart from the Holy Spirit. To put in other words, since Romans 7 is discussing the function and limits of the law, Paul is saying that just as the law of God is unable to justify a person (justification is made possible by the work of Christ), so also is the law unable to sanctify a person. Sanctification must be accomplished in us by the Holy Spirit.

In Romans 6, Paul discussed the deliverance that is ours through our having been crucified and raised with Christ. But he also acknowledged the continuing presence of sin in us through our bodies and reminded us that we must struggle against it. It is the same in Romans 7, though here Paul is emphasizing the futility of the struggle if it is in our own strength. The mature Christian knows that he is always in Romans 7 apart from the Holy Spirit. Moreover, he knows that dependence on the Holy Spirit is not something that is attained once for all but is the result of a daily struggle and a constantly renewed commitment. Sanctification is the growing sense of how sinful we really are, so we will constantly turn to and depend upon Jesus Christ. This is the definition of being mature in Christ.

Romans 7:14-20 Reflection Questions:

Verses 13-20 are often misunderstood, and many Christians struggle to discern the period of Paul’s life that is being described in this passage. But these verses were not intended as an exact description of Paul’s, or anyone else’s, actual experience, though it finds echoes in many places both in human life and in ancient and modern literature. In these verses, Paul moves into the present tense, to describe the actual situation (as opposed to the felt experience) of Israel living under the law. Granting this perspective, what happens when Israel, having been given the law, does its best to live under it?

Why would God (who is often implicated in Paul’s “in order that” clauses) want sin to grow to its full height (v. 13)?

Because much of the discussion in chapter 7 is about Israel, it may seem remote to many modern Christians. Many of us do not stop to ponder the situation of Israel under the law – though perhaps we should. How is this section relevant to us as believers today?

Romans 7:7-12 Sin’s Sad Use of God’s Good Law


In the earliest chapters of Romans Paul has shown that the law cannot justify a person. In the later chapters of Romans he has shown that neither can the law sanctify anyone. Therefore, if we are to be delivered from sin’s penalty and power, it must be by the work of God in Jesus Christ and by the Holy Spirit. Since the law is from God, and God cannot do evil or produce anything that is evil, the gospel Paul teaches seems to collapse. The verses to which we come now show emphatically why the law is not sinful. In particular they speak of three good things the law does, even though it is powerless either to justify or sanctify a person.

The first thing the law accomplishes, according to verse 7, is to reveal sin as sin. There are two problems here, and it’s important to understand both. The first problem is that if left to themselves, people never naturally think they are sinners. Genesis 6:5 is a description of sin as God sees it – every inclination of the thoughts of our hearts only evil all the time. But who believes that his or her every inclination is to do evil? No one believes that unless from a supernatural illumination of his or her mind by the Holy Spirit. The second problem is this: Even if, by some means, we are able to admit that we have done bad things, we are never able to recognize those things as “sin” unless we can also be shown that they transgress the law of God. We don’t call either morally wrong behavior or the criminal acts “sin” unless we see that these also violate God’s law. So the first good thing the law does is reveal that we are sinners. It does this by showing that the bad things we do are an offense to God.

The second good thing the law of God does is provoke sin, thereby drawing forth the realization of how bad sin really is (v. 8). This is what I call “sin’s sad use of God’s good law.” We see it in several areas: (1) Sin, seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment, creates a surge of rebellion in our hearts. The rebellion has been there all along, of course. That is what it means to be a sinner. It means to be a rebel against God. But when the law comes, this dormant rebellion is aroused from its slumber, as it were, and we discover what we are at heart. (2) Sin, seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment, creates a desire to sin in ways that were not even thought of before. In telling us not to do something, the law actually sets us to thinking about it, and because we are sinful people we soon find ourselves wanting to do that very thing. That is what the law does. It provokes wickedness. Moreover, in doing so, it shows us not only that sin is sin, a violation of the law of God; it also shows how strong sin is. It must be very powerful if it can use even God’s good law for such ends.

The third good thing the law does is bring us to the end of ourselves – to “death.” This is what Paul is talking about in verses 9-11. There was a time in Paul’s life when Paul thought he was in good standing before God. When the law finally began to get through to Paul to do its proper work, he saw (1) that he was guilty of having broken it and (2) that his nature was such that, instead of wanting to keep it, he actually wanted to break it. Instead of driving sin out, the law awakened sin. He saw how hopeless his sinful condition was. But that was a good thing! As long as Paul thought he was doing all right, he was on his way to perdition. It was only when he learned he was lost that he was ready to hear God’s words about the Savior.

So is the law sin, then? That is the question with which Paul started out. Here is his answer: “Certainly not!” (v. 7). Rather, as we have seen, “The law is holy, and the commandment is holy, righteous and good” (v. 12). The law does exactly what God sent it into the world to do, and that purpose, actually a threefold purpose, is good.

This leads to a couple important conclusions: First, the law can never save anyone. It never has saved anyone and it never will. It was not meant to. Therefore, if you have been thinking of yourself as a fairly decent person – who generally measures up to whatever moral standards seem reasonable – and believe that God should be glad to accept your self-assessment, bless you in life, and in the end receive you into heaven, it is not the case that you have been hearing and obeying the law. Rather, you have not really begun even to understand it. The law is condemning you, but you, in your ignorance, are supposing that everything is all right. What is happening to you is what Paul describes in verse 11. “Sin, seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment, deceived” you. How? By making you think that everything is fine, when actually you are perishing.

Second, we need to teach the law to awaken people to their sinfulness and show them their need of a Savior. People need to know the uselessness of their own good works and so-called righteousness. They need to know how utterly hopeless the situation is without a Savior. They need to be convinced in their bones that Jesus Christ is the only hope they have. The law was given to drive out all self-righteousness so that we might embrace Jesus Christ alone as our Savior.

Romans 7:7-12 Reflection Questions:

How can the law as depicted in verses 7-12 be holy, good and upright while also producing death at the same time?

Inn verses 7-12, Paul describes the time when the law arrived in Israel in such a way as to reflect also the time when Adam was given the commandment in the Garden (Gen. 2:15-17; 3:17). What are the similarities between the story in Genesis and Paul’s argument here?

Romans 7:5-6 Then and Now


In the middle of our text today, are the two marvelous words “But now.” They point to the tremendous change that has taken place in the life of the one who has come to Christ as Savior. This is a change Paul has been talking about all along, of course. He has been pointing to the difference in a person’s life when one who formerly was apart from Christ becomes a believer.

As far back as Romans 5, Paul contrasted our being in Adam with our being in Christ. The former is what we were before our conversion. The latter is what we have become after it – what we are now. In chapter 6 he contrasted our original slavery to sin with our new and happy slavery to God. In our last study of the first verses of chapter 7 he spoke of two marriages and explained how we have died to the former in order to have the latter. Paul is developing the same idea here. It’s obvious that he is, because he begins with the word for, thus linking this section with what has gone before. Paul wants us to know – Can we possibly doubt this after what he has said earlier? – that to be a Christian is to be “a new creation” in Christ (2 Cor. 5:17). To be saved means that we are no longer what we were and that we must live differently.

The strength of these verses (Rom. 7:5-6) is in the powerful terms Paul uses. The first important term is “sinful nature” or, more literally, “flesh.” “Flesh” (sarx) is the word the Greek text uses. In verse 5, Paul obviously doesn’t mean the whole of mankind, because it is being used as a contrast to those who are “in the Spirit.” And it isn’t referring to the body or even to any parts of the body. In Romans it is a term for the unregenerate, for unbelievers. It is what we were before God saved us.

In 1 Corinthians 3 Paul writes to the Corinthians, “Brothers, I could not address you as spiritual but as worldly (“fleshly”) – mere infants in Christ…For since there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not worldly? Are you not acting like mere men?” (vv. 1, 3). The Christians in Corinth were acting badly, as Christians frequently do. In that area of their lives they were “worldly.” That is, they were acting as if they were not Christians, as “mere men,” unregenerate. But because they were not unregenerate but were actually Christians, they had to stop that bad behavior. Their sin was inconsistent with what they had become in Christ and was therefore intolerable.  This is precisely what Paul has been saying all along in these middle chapters of Romans, He has been teaching that the Christian is not what he was before he became a Christian and, for that very reason, he must (and will) live differently.

The next thing Paul says, as he develops the contrast between what we were then and what by the grace of God we have become now, is that our relationship to the law has changed profoundly. That is, not only have we been changed; our relationships, beginning with the law, have changed too. Here again we have to look at a few terms carefully. The first is “passions,” which occurs in the phrase “sinful passions.” By itself the word passions is neutral and even somewhat passive. The Greek word corresponds to what we usually mean when we speak of our natural appetites, impulses, or emotions. Impulses can be good or bad. But here Paul links these normally neutral passions to sin, calling them “sinful passions,” pointing out that when the law is allowed to work upon them it excites them not to good but to bad behavior.

What does this mean? Does it mean that the law of God, which is “good,” itself turns morally neutral appetites or impulses into bad appetites or impulses? Not at all! The problem is that in the unregenerate man or woman these impulses, though not necessarily good or bad in themselves, are in fact bad, because they have been corrupted by our sinful natures. When the law tells us that we should not do something, our sinful natures rebel and do evil instead. The law is good, but we are not good. Hence, before our conversions the law actually increased rather than reduced immorality. What Paul is saying here is that before our conversion the law served only to arouse our sinful passions. It pushed us to sin. It was only after we had come to Christ that this changed and we found ourselves being drawn in the way of righteousness by God’s Spirit. Christians can sin, and they do. But they do not continue in it. What they do is what Paul says they do in verse 6.

That brings us to the final contrast in these verses. We have looked at the contrast between what we were and what we are now. We have looked at the contrast between our former and present relationships to the law. The final contrast is between what we did as unbelievers, the “fruit” we bore, and our present fruitfulness as Christians. “What was the sum total of our work as unbelievers?” asks Paul. “We bore fruit for death” is his answer (v. 5). This is a different way of putting what he said in verse 4, though it amounts to the same thing. We could do nothing to please God, and all we did do displeased Him. Even when we thought we were doing fine!

Paul knew this by experience. He says in Philippians that before he met Christ he was so outstanding in his conduct that he could claim to have been “faultless” in respect to legal righteousness (Phil. 3:6). To use the terminology of Romans 7:6, he was indeed serving faultlessly “in the old way of the written code.” But it was not “in the Spirit.” So not only was it not acceptable to God, it was actually evil. It was an exercise in self-righteousness, and it led even to persecution of Christians. It was “fruit” of a sort. But it was fruit unto “death” quite literally.

Now I want to say something more. If those about us who are Christians really are Christians, not only is it the case that they must bear fruit to God – serving “in the new way of the Spirit, and not in the old way of the written code” – they actually are doing so, regardless of whether or not they are doing it in the precisely the way you and I are doing it. They may be very different from us and may be serving in very different ways. But if they are truly Christians, they are serving God, and we should acknowledge it.

Romans 7:5-6 Reflection Question:

Give some examples of the different kinds of fruit you have done recently.

Romans 7:1-4 Dying to the Law


Philosopher, social critic, and writer C. K. Chesterton was addressed by a woman who wrote a letter asking him to write a series of articles explaining what was wrong with the world. The following day, Chesterton penned this classic reply: “Madam, I will tell you what is wrong with the world in two words: I am.” What’s wrong with the world? The answer is: I am. It’s not a political problem, or an economic situation, the real reason for the problems of the world is you and me personally. And what is responsible for the problems within us? The answer is sin. Sin in us causes problems to come pouring out from us, which affects the world around us. Sin is the problem. Sin is the issue.  “The power of sin brings destruction,” wrote Paul in Romans 6:20-21. It’s true; everything I’m ashamed of in my life is always directly linked to sin.

The section of Romans we are currently studying (chapters 5-8), concerns the assurance and finality of salvation beginning with the truth that, having been justified by the work of God in Christ we now have “peace with God,” and ending with the triumphal cry (in chapter 8) that nothing will be able to separate us from that relationship. In the course of this section Paul deals with two questions that arise naturally from his thesis: (1) Doesn’t a doctrine like this lead to immoral behavior, since it seems to be saying that we will be saved eventually regardless of what we do? And (2) doesn’t it make the law of no account, or useless? This second problem would be particularly acute for the Jew who had always rightly regarded the law as God’s good gift.

Paul answers the first question of these questions in chapter 6, showing that the gospel does not lead to immorality but rather to the reverse. This is because, in saving us from sin, God has joined us to Jesus Christ, as a result of which those who have been saved must and will live for Him. Paul answers the second question – “But what about the law?” – in chapter 7. But here is the problem. We live in a day when people have little concern for the law, when most people try as hard as they can or dare to be lawless. In our culture today, people don’t want to talk about sin; in fact we have forgotten the word “sin.” We call people “dysfunctional” or “victims,” but the real problem is just plain sin.  So we put rules and regulations around ourselves in order that we might not sin. But the rules and regulations we think will break our fall into sin lead us to depression and exhaustion as we discover we are unable to keep them. Paul deals with this very issue in Romans chapter 7.

Nevertheless, we are “under law.” The Jew was (and is) under the law of the Old Testament. The Gentile is under the law of nature. And that’s the problem. The law cannot save us, as Paul proved early on in Romans. The law cannot sanctify us either, as he is showing now. Still we are under it. It’s all very good to say that the answer to a holy life is not the law but a person, but that does little good if we are still under bondage to the former. This is where Romans 7:1-4 comes in. For what Paul tells us in these verses is that the solution is death. We must die to one (law) in order to be free for another (Jesus Christ). The law has an important role to play. Paul will explain that carefully in verses 7-13. But his first teaching in reference to law is that we must be freed from it and that the only way we can be freed from it is by death.

In verse 1 Paul states a fact that should be self-evident. As long as we are alive we are bound by the laws of the country in which we live. But if we die, we are freed from those laws. In verses 2-3 Paul gives an illustration from common experience, citing the case of a woman who is married to a certain man. The point of the illustration is simplicity itself: The death of the husband releases the wife from the law that bound her to the marriage. It’s important that we don’t interpret into these verses more than what Paul intended. It is only an illustration and not an allegory. That is, it’s not necessary to assign meanings to each illustration’s parts. In fact if we try to do that, we are at once led into difficulty.

So what is Paul saying in verse 4? Simply that the object of God’s having freed us from the law, to which we were bound, was that we might be joined to Christ and be fruitful. In fact, it is even stronger than that. In the Greek the sentence ends with the words “in order that we might bear fruit to God,” which means that in this case it is the fruitfulness of the Christian, rather even than his union with Christ that is emphasized. And why not? Paul has been teaching that, having been saved by God, we must live a holy life. Now, by the image of a fruitful marriage, he teaches that this has been God’s object in saving us all along. Let us state it clearly. According to these first few verses in Romans 7, God saved us so that we, who beforehand were lost in sin and wickedness, might live a holy life.

One day the great God of the universe is going to throw a party. It will be the most magnificent party that has ever been held. The banquet will be spread in heaven. The guests will be numbered in the billions. The angelic legions will be there to serve these honored guests. Jesus, the Bridegroom, will be seated at His Father’s right hand. And you will be there, too, for this is the great marriage supper of the Lamb. You will be there. Do you understand that? Nothing is going to keep you from that great celebration – if you are really joined to Jesus Christ.

So what are you doing? Are you living a halfhearted life for Jesus Christ now? If you know where you are headed, you will be preparing for that day with every spiritual thought you have and with every deed you do. You will be bearing fruit for God, because on that day of celebration you will be able to lift it up and offer it to Him with pure hands and with joy unspeakable.

Romans 7:1-4 Reflection Questions:

Give examples of how you have seen each kind of fruit recently.

In verses 1-6, Paul tries to illustrate some main points about the law, by which he means the Law of Moses given to the Israelites on Mount Sinai. How is the law a part of the problem for Israel rather than the solution (see vv. 1-11)?

Describe the differences between the two types of fruit referenced in verses 4-5.

Romans 6:19-23 Where the Two Roads Lead


Paul has been using the analogy of slavery to make his point, a fact he alludes to in verse 19, and the point has been that in life we must serve either of two masters. Either we must serve sin, or we must serve God. There is no neutral ground. This has been Paul’s main point. But do you really believe this? If we understood it and really believed it, would we sin as frequently or as easily as we sometimes do? Would we take sin lightly and be as casual in the pursuit of righteousness as we often are?

What Paul has been describing in these verses is the doctrine of the two ways, which is found throughout the Bible. The best known statement of it is in the words of Jesus recorded in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5-7). The last section of that sermon lists a series of contrasts among which choices must be made: two gates and two roads, two trees and their two types of fruit, two houses and two foundations. The part regarding the two roads is in Matthew 7:13-14. The point is that a person can be on only one of these two roads, because the roads are entirely different and lead in opposite directions.

The first road starts with slavery to sin. It’s the condition into which each of us is born, for none of us is born righteous. Sin is a cruel master; it drives us along. By ourselves we are unable to escape this harsh tyranny. This leads to “impurity and to ever-increasing wickedness” (v. 19). Impurity refers to sin as it affects the individual. It means personal defilement, particularly by sins that are opposed to chastity. Wickedness refers to violation of the divine or human laws.

The second road starts with slavery to God, which God accomplishes in us and which is actually freedom. This road leads to “righteousness,” and righteousness leads to “holiness” (v. 19). “Righteousness” in this context means primarily righteous acts. “Holiness” is an inner state characterized by conformity to the will and character of God. The phase “righteousness leading to holiness” teaches that the practice of outward godliness leads to inward godliness; that is, doing right things actually brings a person along the pathway of spiritual growth. The end of this healthy, developing road is eternal life (v. 22). In this context “eternal life” refers to the fruit, or end result, of a godly life, not the life itself or its reward. It refers to eternal fellowship with God, who is its source.

Certain Bible verses stand out above others as striking summaries of very important doctrines, particularly those that lie at the very heart of the gospel. Romans 6:23 is one such verse. It’s one of the most familiar verses in the Bible. It says, “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (v. 23). The appeal of this verse is in its summary of the doctrine of the two roads, which we have been studying in one way or another throughout this entire chapter and even in Romans 5. The doctrine has been presented repeatedly, though in different formats.

In Romans 6 the two roads have been described as out workings of two slaveries. On the one hand, there is a slavery to sin. Each of us is born into slavery, which leads to “impurity and ever-increasing wickedness” (v. 19). The end is death (v. 21). On the other hand, there is a slavery to God, which leads to “righteousness leading to holiness” (v. 19) and ends in life (v. 22). This is what is summarized in verse 23.

When Paul contrasts “death” with “eternal life,” as he does in verse 23, we immediately think of the state of souls beyond the grave. That is part of the picture, of course, an important part. But we need to remember that, in Romans 6, Paul is writing about the present life of the believer and stressing that, having been freed from slavery to sin, a Christian must thereafter live to serve God. Although death and life are eternal ends, we must not overlook that there is also a present death and a present life to be considered.

We still have one important phrase left over from verse 23; it is the phrase “in Christ Jesus our Lord.” It’s not part of the contrasts we have been studying; “God” is set against “sin,” “gift” against “wages,” “eternal life” against “death.” Why then, does Paul include it? Obviously, because it brings out what was all-important to him, indeed the great truth for which the entire Book of Romans has been written. Paul never forgot that we are saved from sin only because of Jesus’ work. And that raises a final question – a personal one, because religion always is personal; it must be. Are you in Jesus? Is Jesus your Savior, your Lord? There are only two ways you can answer that question, either “Yes” or “No.” He either is your Savior or He is not.

If He is, let me ask these follow-up questions: Are you living for Jesus? If you are not, why not? He gave Himself for you. He died for you. He even lives for you. Paul’s purpose in Romans 6 is to show that if you have been delivered from your bondage to sin by Jesus, it is so that you might thereafter be His, starting in this life. In the midst of a world that is being swept along by the flood torrent of sin, you are to stand out as Jesus’ servant. You are to live for and witness to Him.

If your answer to the question is “No,” I ask why you would willingly keep going on such a self-destructive path, particularly when the way of salvation is known to you. Haven’t you been trapped by sin long enough? Don’t you long for deliverance? The wages of sin is death, and spiritually speaking you are as dead as the dry bones in the Valley of Dry Bones (see Ezek. 37:3). No one but God can bring life out of death. No one but Jesus can make your dead bones live. God can do it. And He will as you come to Him. You need to come. You need to come now!

Romans 6:19-23 Reflection Questions:

Paul moves from the analogy of slavery to an analogy of roads. Describe the two “destinations” that Paul speaks of in verses 20-23.

Slavery to sin or to God and His covenant purposes, embracing our true identity as freed from sin, and presenting ourselves fully to covenant justice are all main ideas in chapter 6. Imagine if Paul were to look up for a moment from writing this letter and glance round the church, maybe your church, at the start of the twenty-first century. What might he say regarding these themes?

Pray specifically for yourself and others in the areas raised by the study of chapter 6. Pray for freedom from the control of the wrong master and for the strength to live in the true identity of Christ.